TRIZ marriage with TOC delivers improved product
Rony Manna, Gregory Frenklachb
a Solutions Engine, firstname.lastname@example.org,Israel
b Solutions Engine, email@example.com,Israel
A product is an essential super-system in every system. Product change is an outcome of every system, and in most cases products affect the system. Often, the system includes a human interface that cannot be fully controlled. Each system’s performance is limited by at least one constraint at a time. System performance improvement can be achieved if the constraint/limitations is identified and a stable solution. is provided. The method “Thinking Processes” is a part of Theory of Constraints (TOC TP). It provides tools to identify system's constraints, define properly the conflict that causes the constraints and exposes "hidden assumptions" in the understanding of the conflict. Conflict's resolution eliminates the constraint and improves system performance. TRIZ provides effective and proven tools to resolve technical conflicts. We use the common object of both methods to resolve contradictions/conflicts as a coupling point. The combination of TOC TP in conjunction with TRIZ provides a powerful toolset, enabling the improvement of product and system performance for systems that consist of both technical elements and human factors.
Keywords: TRIZ, TOC, TOC TP, System, Constraints, Conflict, Puzzle, Problem Situation Mapping, Cloud, CRD, CRT, PSM, MUST
- What is TOC TP?
The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) is a management philosophy for the improvement of system performance, created by Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt . It applies the thinking processes and logic used in the hard sciences (sufficient cause, necessary condition) to understand and improve systems of all types as well as to enable people to think creatively and to have high quality interpersonal communication.
TOC consists of three parts:
1) A set of problem-solving tools - called the TOC TP (Thinking Processes) - to logically and systematically answer the three questions essential to any process of on-going improvement: "What to change?", "To what to change to?" and "How to cause the change?".
2) A set of daily management tools - taken from the TOC TP - that can be used to significantly improve vital management skills, such as communication, effecting change, team building and empowerment; strategic planning and problem analysis and conflict resolution.
3) Innovative, proven solution sets created by applying the TOC TP to specific application areas, such as Production, Marketing and Sales, Project Management, and Setting The Direction of The Company, and many other applications.
An extraordinary benefit of the TOC TP tools is that they provide the ability to recognize the paradigm shifts which occur when environment and external rules are changed but our assumptions and rules don't. Those of us who continue our patterns of operation, regardless of the changing reality, will suffer when the effects of our actions are not those that we expect. We cannot constantly monitor every assumption to be sure we are in line with constantly evolving reality, so practicing of TOC logic tools can be a real advantage.
- What is TRIZ?
TRIZ  is a problem solving methodology based on logic and data which relies on the study of so called "transition patterns" from problems to inventive solutions, not on the spontaneous or intuitive creativity.
TRIZ is based on the hypothesis that there are universal principles of creativity that are used as a base for innovations which advance technology. These principles could be identified, classified, and used in the application of TRIZ process to mimic the innovation/problem solving process.
The generic flow of the innovation/problem solving applies TRIZ general patterns (problemèsolution) to specific situations in order to find a solution (Fig 1)
- Previous attempt to "marry" TRIZ and TOC are reported since 1999. Ellen Domb and H.W Dettemer  discussed the use of separation principles and the contradiction matrix to solve the cloud conflict. David Bergland and Alla Zusman  used the functional tree instead of the CRT, they defined the "Must" part of the cloud as technical contradiction and the "Pre requisite" part as physical contradiction and used separation principles to solve the conflict. We will show a comprehensive approach for TOC TP synergy with TRIZ, developed using "system approach".
- Comparison between TRIZ and TOC TP analyzed by Multilevel Universal System Thinking (MUST) 
Result: Both TRIZ and TOC TP are intended to get the same result - improvement of a system.
- TRIZ obtains the result by resolving contradiction using of "patterns" that were revealed on base of the world patent fund analysis.
- TOC TP obtains the result by identifying and elimination of the system constraint (key-problem).
- TRIZ - method is based on the technical system development laws and regularities.
- TOC - method is based on releasing team knowledge during discussion, and applying
existing - but hidden - team members intuitions.
- TRIZ tools that are applied to analyze problem situation, define the problem, choose problem solving direction, find and evaluate the solution concept.
- TOC TP tools that are applied to consolidate a team, identify key-problem (constraint), analyze the problem, resolve it and evaluate the solution concept.
- Both TRIZ and TOC TP have well-described tools and work procedures.
In order to check "synergy" possibilities let's write down drawbacks of TRIZ and TOC TP.
- TRIZ isn't intended to find key-problem (constraint).
- TOC TP does not use "patterns".
- TRIZ isn't built to release hidden team knowledge and intuitions
- TOC TP does not use system development "regularities".
- TRIZ tools are procedural-wordy and insufficiently visual.
- TOC TP tools do not allow "smooth" transition between the tools (from CRT to Cloud and from Cloud to Injection)
A "synergy" of TRIZ and TOC TP should overcome the above mentioned drawbacks of the two methods.
- The synergetic process
Synergy between TOC TP and TRIZ is done using a number of elements of TOC TP and TRIZ plus additional components. These are the components of the synergy:
- "Current Reality Tree" (CRT) is a TOC-TP causality tree to examine problem holistically and determine system constraint. Dominant system constraint or a minimum set of constraints prevent the system from achieving its goal.
CRT logically connects and organizes the Undesirable Effects (UDEs) of the system. The highlighted root of the tree is the "key problem" or system’s dominant constraint.
Adding "X factor" connect the CRT to the system resources: "X factor" indicates an unknown factor which is a part of the "if then" logic statement. "X factor" is similar in meaning to "X element" of ARIZ.
Advantages of the "X factor": The team recognizes their lack of knowledge in this area and they would look for it. One way to deal with it is to replace it by one of the system resources and then re evaluate the statement. (Fig 2).
- PSM: Problem Situation Mapping , Applies "Puzzle thinking" to analyze problem situation analysis and enable turning of the constraint into several sets of undesired effects (UDEs) on different levels, connected to each other by causality chain. Then conflict pairs of UDEs are transformed into conflict resolution diagrams (Fig 3).
PSM is expanded in another work "TRIZ Problem Selection and Definition Reinvigorated"
- Evaporating CLOUD: "Conflict Resolution Diagram" (CRD) is a TOC-TP tool to resolve system conflicts, in order to reach the system goal. Cloud identifies the conditions necessary to reach a goal, reveals conflict between the terms, exposes hidden assumptions in the system, and provides the path to resolve the conflict (Fig 4).
"Injection" is a solution which removes assumptions or one of the necessary conditions thus leads to conflict resolution and therefore allows achieving the goal (Fig 5).
Injection generation is improved by operating the Inventive principles on the "Must" area and the Separation principles on the "Pre requisite" area , .
During PSM process problems are formulated correctly and connected to UDEs, which makes it easier to apply TRIZ tools to Clouds that are derived from PSM.
Hidden assumptions are sometimes based on psychological inertia. Therefore some of TRIZ tools that are intended to overcome the psychological inertia like DTC  and exercises for creative imagination development  could be used to break the hidden assumptions.
TOC TP – TRIZ Synergy MAP
- Case study
This is a case of Communication Company. The goal of the work was to create a concept of solution for system that was crashed down few times a week and caused disconnection of big areas from all communication services. This work was performed over few months. The case study presents consequence of the process only and does not explain all the issues.
Steps of the work:
- Create a team that represents all parts of the system (technical, customers, sales etc.)
- Create CRT and identify the "key problems"
- Create PSM for the “key-problems”
- Derive Clouds from PSM
- Applying of TRIZ tools for problem solving and overcoming of psychological inertia as injection support to evaporate the Cloud(s).
- Create FRT to evaluate injection(s)
- The synergy direction is to build TRIZ tools into TOC TP process in order to improve problem solving capability of TOC TP process while preserving its advantages for team work.
- CRT creation process is fast and leads to better understanding of the situation, and the system's constrains, since "X factor" usage ties CRT to system resources.
- PSM enables building a set of Clouds that are connected with the system's constraints, thus transition from CRT to Cloud is smooth, accurate and fast.
- PSM process formulates problems correctly, therefore it is easier to implement TRIZ tools to Clouds that are derived from PSM.
- Injection creation process is systematic and accurate because it is based on TRIZ tools for problem solving and breaking of psychological inertia.
 Eliyahu M. Goldratt. It's Not Luck. 1994
 G. Altshuller. Creativity as an Exact Science. Translated by Anthony Williams. NY. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, 1988
[3 ] Ellen Domb, H. William Dettmer Breakthrough Innovation In Conflict Resolution: Marrying TRIZ and the Thinking Process www.triz-journal.com 1999
 David Bergland , Alla Zusman An Accelerated Process for Creating Breakthrough Inventions - The Speed to Invent Velocity conference.
 Gregory Frenklach Some thoughts about TRIZ feature transfer into other field of human life www.triz-journal.com 2006
 Gregory Frenklach Efficient Use of the System Operator www.triz-journal.com 1998
 Gregory Frenklach Multi-level Problem Solving www.triz-journal.com 2007
 Darrell MANN, Roy STRATTON Physical Contradictions and Evaporating Clouds www.triz-journal.com 2000
 Gregory Frenklach Efficient Use of the DTC Operator www.triz-journal.com/archives 1998
 Gregory Frenklach Creative Imagination Development www.triz-journal.com 1998